Grant funding – to reduce the total financing requirement and cost of finance
Public-supported equity – to improve access to capital, and lower cost of finance. Public equity can price risk more appropriately – and thus facilitate project financing. The EU Investment Platform scheme is an example.
Public-guaranteed loans – to improve access to capital, and lower cost of finance. Loans can
be guaranteed by public bodies – such as the EU Innovfin EDP scheme – to enable lower rates than with commercial lenders.
Insurance & Guarantee Fund – to cover technical risk, reduce financial exposure and allow private investors to fill the remaining financing gap at lower cost.
Revenue support – to finance OPEX, interests from debt and dividends for equity